Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network


Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere generally comprises solids and liquids, with particle sizes that range from a few nanometres (nm) in diameter to about 100 micrometres (µm). The chemical composition of PM is varied and the constituents of PM at any location will depend on many factors such as local emission sources and meteorological conditions.

What is the purpose of the network?

The purpose of this research is to improve understanding of the composition of particulate matter in the UK. Exposure to airborne PM is associated with a range of adverse effects on human health including effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, leading to hospital admissions and mortality. There is increasing evidence that fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particulate matter (nano-scale), plays a more significant role than previously thought, although as yet the precise toxicological mechanisms are not clearly understood. There is also evidence to suggest that particle numbers are of greater significance than mass concentration in the determination of certain health effects. Particle number is the total number of particles sampled, particle mass concentration is the mass of pollutant per unit volume (for example µg m-3). Mass concentrations are impacted by the number and size distribution of particles.

How is the network run?

The Particle Numbers and Concentrations Network is run by NPL in partnership with KCL and the University of Birmingham on behalf of Defra and the Devolved Administrations. The data analysis and interpretation focuses on:

  • Analysis of particulate mass concentrations, PM2.5 and PM10, in terms of the relationships between different size fractions, emission sources, episodes of high particulate pollution, and contribution of windblown suspended particles.
  • Seasonal variations and local meteorological factors related to changes in particle mass and numbers.
  • Diurnal variation in mass concentration and particle numbers.
  • Relationships between particle mass and number from sites in the network, and information taken from other ratified data sets such as AURN data.
  • Comparative analysis between secondary particles, the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions and particle sizes and numbers.
  • Statistical analyses to determine the relationships of PM10 with PM2.5, coarse particles, and the fine and ultra fine fractions and the relationship of PM with NOX and CO to examine the influence of traffic on airborne particles.

Research reports and annual reports from this network can be found in the Library section of this website.

Monitoring methods

The network comprises of a range of analysers at several locations, and draws on data from other networks (such as the AURN) to further understanding of the composition of PM in the UK.

Table 1: Particle numbers and concentrations monitoring network
SitePartisol (PM10)Leckel (PM2.5) SMPSCPCAethalometerURG-9000B
Met Sensor
Birmingham Tyburn       X      
Harwell X X X X X    
London North Kensington X   X X   X  
London Marylebone Rd X   X X   X  
Auchencorth Moss   X          
Rochester             X

CPC - Condensation Particle Counter measure particle number concentrations
SMPS - Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers measure particle size distributions

Inorganic components of PM10 (sulphate, nitrate and chloride) are made using a Thermo Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler. Ultrapure quartz filters (Pallflex Tissuquartz) are used to allow for the analysis of PM10 EC/OC.

Leckel SEQ47/50 air sampler. Ultrapure quartz filters (Pallflex Tissuquartz) are used to allow for the analysis of PM2.5 EC/OC.
Aethalometers measure black carbon
URG-9000B Ambient Ion Monitor analysers for the measurement of the ionic components of PM in the atmosphere. The AIM can measures SO42-, Na+, NH , Ca2+ , NO3- , K+, Cl- and Mg2+

View data for sites in this network

Data can be downloaded from the Data Archive section of this website.

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